Several measures to increase the egg production rate

鹌鹑 鹌鹑 alias 赤喉鹑, belongs to the vertebrate phylum Acanthidae. It is characterized by its fast growth, strong adaptability, resistance to roughage, early maturation, high egg production, low material consumption, and short growth cycle. It is a special economic bird with high economic value.
Pork meat is a high-protein, low-fat food that is suitable for obese hypertensive patients. The meat is tender, the meat is delicious and the nutrition is comprehensive. According to analysis and determination, the content of protein, iron, calcium and phosphorus in quail meat is higher than that in chicken, and the cholesterol content is low. Quail eggs have high nutritional value and medicinal value. According to research, the composition of quail eggs is richer and more pure than eggs. Protein is 3% higher than eggs, iron is 46.9% higher than eggs, and VB1 and VB2 are higher than eggs. 20% and 188.3% are good nutritional supplements and are extremely suitable for infant development and patient supplementation.
鹌鹑 According to the economic use of egg and meat, two methods are proposed to improve the egg production rate.
1 It is very important to choose the appropriate egg for the quail species for egg selection. Among the egg breeds currently used in China, Japanese cockroaches, artichokes, French white feather cockroaches, and Chinese white cockroaches are all better. Japan's small carcass type, adult male body weight 100 ~ 120g, female quail 130 ~ 160g; 40 days old about production, eggs 250 ~ 300 per year, egg weight about 10g; egg production daily feed 25 ~ 30g, is One of the world's most famous egg breeds. The artichoke body is larger than the Japanese cockroach, adult body weight 125-130g, female cockroach 150g, 45-50 days of age production, annual egg production 270-280 pieces, egg weight 12g, about 23g daily consumption of egg production. The white feathers of French white feathers are white, with a weight of 140 g. They are forty days old at the age of 40 days. The average egg production rate is 75%, and the highest egg weight is 11g. The average daily egg consumption is 30g. Chinese White Feather 鹌鹑 adult male 鹑 weight 145g, female 鹑 170g; 45-day-old production, the average annual egg production rate of up to 80% 8 85%, annual egg production 265 ~ 300, egg weight 11.5 ~ 13.5g; egg production Consumption of 24g during the day. The above-mentioned egg-use alfalfa varieties have less daily consumption of feed, more eggs per year and heavier eggs, which are suitable for selection.
2 Strengthen feeding management
2.1 Nutrition Level and Diet Formulation According to the egg production rate of egg quail and the nutritional requirements in different periods, scientific preparation of feed is one of the necessary conditions for high yield and stable production. During the egg production period, the metabolic rate is high and there is a high demand for nutrients; therefore, diets must be formulated according to nutritional requirements. (See Table 1, Table 2)
2.2 Reasonable feeding
2.2.1 The number of feedings is usually fed 4 times a day, ie, 6 o'clock, 11 o'clock, 15 o'clock and 18 o'clock. In the spring season of egg production, one can be fed at night. Each time feeding, we need to make regular, quantitative, and less feeding Tim, so that the production of egg tarts not only has time for digestion and rest, but also does not feel excessive hunger, and every time when the next feeding, it can have strong appetite. In feeding, drinking water can not be interrupted, the amount of drinking water is generally 2 to 3 times the intake, daily needs 50 ~ 75g, so that enough water.
Table 1 Egg production rate and its dietary level of egg production at different laying times Weekly age Egg production rate Metabolism Energy crude Protein calcium and phosphorus (%) (kJ/kg) (%) (%) (%)
6 to 10 (initial opening) 30 to 50 11297 to 11715 20 to 23 1.0 0.5
11 to 21 (pronounced egg production) 50 to 90 10042 to 10878 26 to 28 3.0 0.8
22 to 60 (later egg production) 70 to 30 10878 to 11715 24 to 22 2.5 0.8
Table 2 Diet formulas for different egg production periods (%)
Feed 6 to 10 weeks of age 11 to 21 weeks of age 22 to 60 weeks of age (opening of production) (pronounced egg production period) (later egg production period)
Corn 42 30 56
Bean Cake 22 - 10
Fishmeal 15 30 12
Bran 6 12 -
Rice bran - 20 -
Corn germ cake 12 - -
Bone meal 2.5 4.5 4
Powder - 3 -
Silkworm cocoons - - 10
Rapeseed Cake - - 8
Salt 0.5 0.3 -
2.2.2 Feed Formulation Feeds fed can be either dry or semi-wet feed. Feed dry powder, the feed is not easy to degenerate, feeding is convenient, suitable for large groups feeding, generally with a certain size of the market and professional households use the powder to enable the pupa to feed freely; when feeding the semi-wet material, the dry powder is mixed with water, Serve as a semi-wet material with a feed to water ratio of 1:1.5 to 1.8. The semi-wet material has good palatability, high feed intake, and high egg production rate; but at the time of labor cost, it is susceptible to spoilage and deterioration in the summer, and it can be used for feeding small semi-wet materials at regular intervals in the small market. In addition, there are granules, that is, the compound feed is made into granules by a pellet feed pelletizer. This kind of feed has a comprehensive nutrition and is not easy to picky. However, if it is poorly managed, it can easily cause paralysis. When feeding green feed, be careful to beat and mix with concentrate. In order to help digestion, appropriate amount of insoluble sand can be added to the feed, or put some sand in the trough to allow them to eat freely.
2.2.3 Feeding the weight-bearing egg laying quail weighing about 130g, 25~30g of compound feed is consumed per day, and the specific feeding amount should also be based on the energy and protein level of the diet, the temperature, the egg production rate and the digestive capacity of the laying quail. Make adjustments.
3 Optimize the egg production environment
3.1 The temperature is warm and afraid of cold. The suitable temperature in the house is 20-22°C. When the shepherd temperature is lower than 20°C, the egg production rate is decreased by 10%, and when the temperature is lower than 10°C, the egg production rate is decreased by 60%, or even the production is stopped, and the disease resistance is significantly reduced and the mortality rate is increased. Cockroaches are more tolerant to high temperatures (35-36°C), and high temperatures have little effect on cockroach production. However, long-term high-temperature persistence results in a significant decline in egg production. The house should maintain a balanced temperature, not cold or hot. In winter, heat insulation should be done to prevent thief. In summer, cooling should be done. Conditional exhaust fans can be installed indoors.
3.2 The relative humidity in the house is preferably 50% to 55%. Excessive humidity may allow artificial ventilation to remove moisture; if the humidity is too low, sprinkle some water on the floor to increase the humidity.
3.3 Ventilation The egg-laying clams have a strong metabolism, combined with dense multi-layered cages, a large number of clams, and a large concentration of harmful gases such as ammonia gas, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. Therefore, attention must be paid to ventilation. In the case of low temperature, heat can be generated to increase the temperature, and then ventilation. Summer ventilation is 3 to 4 cubic meters per hour and winter is 1 cubic meter per hour. Ventilation is best done at sunny, noon hours.
3.4 Illumination Illumination is an important factor affecting the production rate of cockroaches. Reasonable light can enable mother cocoon to open early and increase the egg production. The light time of the egg laying period should be controlled on a daily basis (natural light + artificial fill light) for 16 hours. Egg tarts prefer soft light, with 40-watt incandescent bulbs preferred. Excessive light or strong natural light can cause serious hair loss, premature aging, and reduced egg weight.
3.5 Density The density of feeding egg tarts should not be too large. Overcrowding can affect normal feeding, rest, and breeding. Ventilation and ventilation are also poor. It is also prone to paralysis, licking, and quail eggs. Under cage conditions, 20 to 30 eggs can be raised per square meter.
3.6 Sanitary staff shall clean the excrement and diligently clean the equipment, and shall be sprayed and fumigated regularly.
3.7 Environment 鹌鹑 likes quietness and is very sensitive to the surrounding environment. The movement and exchange of cages, the loud squeaks and run-offs of keeper, and the scurry will scare the emu and cause a significant drop in egg production. In addition, rats, cats, dogs, and weasel should be prevented from entering the dormitory. Make it frightened.
4 Doing a good job of disease prevention
4.1 Newcastle disease Newcastle disease is a virulent infectious disease caused by a virus invading the septicaemia caused by the body. Symptoms: Loss of energy, loss of appetite, drop in egg production rate, increased production of soft shell eggs and white eggs, pulling of green excrement, increased body temperature, difficulty in breathing, sagging of wings, general death of 2 to 4 days, and high mortality. The necropsy showed obvious bleeding points in the glandular stomach, intestines, and ovaries. Prevention; for the disease has no specific drugs, to prevent the main, 7 ~ 10 days old pups, with Newcastle disease II Series vaccine 0.5g dissolved in 1500 ml cold water, for 1000 toads to drink within 2 hours Finish. At 30 days of age, repeat again, or dilute the Type II vaccine by 20 times, 2 drops each.
4.2 Fowl cholera Fowl cholera is an infectious disease caused by Pasteurella multocida, contaminated with feed, drinking water or soil. Symptoms: acute, sick food, frequent drinking, joint swelling, leg paralysis, difficulty breathing. In the chronic onset, the head is dark blue, the face is swollen, there is a yellow to green diarrhea, the heart fat sulcus, glandular stomach, muscle stomach, and duodenum have large needle tip bleeding points, and the liver surface has white large and small The necrotic point. Prevention: Intramuscular injection with 20,000 units of penicillin or 50,000 units of streptomycin diluted; oxytetracycline can also be fed with 0.03% of the mixture and the treatment amount is doubled.
4.3 Mycoplasma Disease (Chronic Respiratory Disease)
Mycoplasma disease is a disease caused by septic Mycoplasma, and fleas and eggs are the major sources of infection. Poor feed quality, high stocking density, poor sanitary conditions, etc. are the incentives for this disease. Symptoms: runny nose, cough, difficulty breathing, rale in the respiratory tract, loss of appetite, loose feathers, and swollen eyelids. Prevention: Mainly to strengthen the feeding and management, do a good job in environmental sanitation, feed with oxytetracycline or tetracycline 0.1g each time, feed for 3 days. Streptomycin can also be used for 10,000 units per day, diluted with distilled water and injected intramuscularly twice daily for 3 days.
4.4 E. coli disease E. coli disease is caused by pathogenic E. coli contaminated eggs, diseased pupae and their excreta, secretions and contaminated feed, drinking water, litter and so on. The pathogenesis of the disease is many, mainly through the digestive tract and respiratory infections, but also vertical transmission. Symptoms: Sickness, loss of appetite, or loss of appetite, intoxication, loose feathers, drooping wings, drowsiness with closed eyes, difficulty in breathing, large amounts of mucus from the mouth, diarrhea, yellowish green stools, The cloaca was red and swollen and the body was emaciation, and the legs were unstable and lying on the bottom of the cage. A small number of neurological symptoms such as circling or twisting necks occurred, and finally the head and neck leaned back and died like a horned arch. The autopsy revealed thickening of the peritoneum, fibrinous exudates on the peritoneum, and a large amount of pale yellow translucent fluid in the abdominal cavity. The liver is slightly enlarged, brittle, and grayish necrosis, with yellowish jelly-like exudates on the surface of the liver. Prevention: Clean the house regularly, remove the stool regularly, keep the house clean and dry, and disinfect twice daily with 2% caustic soda. Reduce the stocking density, increase the temperature (to 20 ~ 22 °C). The chloramphenicol powder was mixed into the feed at a rate of 0.04%, and was continuously taken for 6 days. At the same time, gentamicin was mixed with water in an amount of 2 mg per kilogram of body weight for drinking, and even for 6 days.
4.5 Coccidiosis Coccidiosis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by coccidia. The disease usually occurred due to eating feed and water contaminated by coccidiosis sporulated oocysts. Symptoms: Loss of appetite, thirst, lack of love for movement, drooping wings, weight loss, anemia, blood excretion, brownish red or pulling blood, severe death. Autopsy: Visible intestine, small intestine inflammation, mucosal hyperemia or hemorrhage. Prevention and cure; The main thing is to keep the shacks clean and dry, remove the excrement in time, treat the excreta with biological heat disinfestation, and disinfect regularly. Treatment: Can be used to stir the ball spirit every 10kg feed 0.63g feed; also available penicillin, 2000 units per pot, add water to drink.
Author: College of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Jinzhou Medical College

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