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1. Deep-sweeping soil replacement and increasing organic fertility depend on good physical and chemical conditions. Deep plowing can ripen the soil and create a soil structure with deep soil, soil fertility and earthiness. The methods of deep turning are:
(1) The whole park is deep-turned: it is suitable for the vineyards and fences in the fruit period. Deep plowing in the spring can deepen the tillage layer and turn weed seeds, germs, eggs, etc. to the ground to reduce damage. It has a good effect on ripening soil and improving soil structure.
(2) According to the trip deep: suitable for wide rows of scaffolding parks and young vineyards. 40-50cm from the plant to dig trenches, young trees ditch 30-40cm deep, mature tree ditch depth 40-60cm, ditch width are 40-70cm, under the frame year-by-year deep deep turn, can be completed in fractions The park is deeply turned. In deep turning, the topsoil is separated from the subsoil, and the coarse carbon and nitrogen organic fertilizers, such as straws and green manures of various crops, are filled in the bottom of the ditch. Slightly cut off, mix with topsoil, fill in the bottom layer to increase deep permeability and extend the effective period of deep turning. The middle-upper part is filled with subsoil mixed with organic fertilizer to increase the fertility of the root mass area.
(3) Rooting: The vineyards suitable for dry areas and hilly areas. Under the frame of the plant, the soil is deeper and 20-40cm deeper, gradually deepens from the near plants and cuts off the root system of the surface, causing the root system to extend deeper. The root depth should be deepened year by year.
2. Underlying grass under the grass cover can improve the soil structure, create a suitable soil environment for surface roots, and play a variety of roles of increasing fertilizer, impounding water, no-tillage, and weed control.
Grass cover method: can be used under the full cover or within the inter-row grass cover. The thickness of grass covered with 15-20cm is appropriate, the first year is more, then gradually reduced.
Covering time: According to the role played, time has changed. In order to prevent spring drought and windbreaks, it should be covered in early spring. The materials used are straw, wheat straw, weeds, and barnyardgrass; to prevent sunburn, grass should be applied after flowering to reduce surface temperature and reflected light from the ground. To prevent white rot, cover grass before the rainy season to prevent rain splashes.
3. Intercropping and clear ploughing are applied in the shoot under the new tip and between the rows. Clear ploughing is used between the plants, and the "species" and "cultivation" are applied together.
Intercrop crops require dwarf and do not win glory with the grapes. They do not have the same needs for fertilizer and water during grape growth and development. They do not have the same pests and diseases as grape growth and development, so it is advisable to not affect grape growth and development. Use peanuts, soybeans and other legumes.
Plants are kept clear till the year to prevent the growth of weeds. 5-6 times of cultivating and weeding should be carried out during the year to keep the soil loose. Cultivating in the early spring will help increase the temperature and maintain the soil. In the growing season, cultivating can cut off the upper roots and promote the root system to develop deeper.
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