Pea rust

Symptoms mainly affect the leaves and stems. At the beginning of the disease, the leaves developed small round tan patches on the leaf surface or on the back of the leaves. After the rupture, dark brown powder was scattered. Later, a dark brown bulge appeared in the diseased part, and black streaks appeared after longitudinal cracking. After the stem is infected, the disease is similar to the leaf.

Pathogen Uromyces pisi (Pers.) Schrot said that P. pea is a basidiomycotina fungus. It is the main parasite. The summer spores and teliospores are piled on peas or other bean crops, and the rust spores and sex organs are on the ornamental plants of the genus Euphorbia. There are many physiological races on peas. It has been reported that Uromyces ervi (Wallr.) Westnd. called unicellular rust of vicia, a basidiomycotina fungus that can also infect peas. U. ervi is a single-host parasitizing bacterium. The rust spores are found on the dorsal, petiole, stem, or indica. They are cup-shaped, coated with white or yellow, with valgus margins; rust spores are spherical to elliptic, densely tumourous, pale yellow. , size 16-2514-21 (μm). Summer spores were born on both sides of the leaves, petiole or stem, cinnamon; summer spores spherical to oval, with thorns, yellow-brown, size 18-3318-27 (μm). The teliospores heap is similar to the uredia spores and is dark brown in color; the teliospores are subglobose and brown, with a size of 23–3815–24 (μm).
Transmission Path and Invasion Conditions Northern winters have winter spores attached to peas diseased body for wintering, late springs produce burdens and basidiospores, spores mature off and are transmitted to the host foliage by airflow, germ tubes are produced at the time of germination, direct Invade the peas, produce sexual organs, sexual spores and rust cavity and rust spores in the diseased part, then form uredia spores to produce uredia spores, re-infect by airflow propagation, and form winter cyperus piles and winter spores in winter. Southern infestation and re-infestation with the summer spores complete the infestation cycle. The occurrence of rust is closely related to temperature, humidity, variety and sowing date. The fungus is warm and humid, the temperature is 14-24°C, it is suitable for spore germination and infestation, the summer spores increase rapidly, the temperature is 20-25°C, so most of the pea producing areas are affected after the temperature rises, especially in spring rainy years. Easy to pop. The temperature in winter and spring in Yunnan is high, and the onset of disease begins before the early sowing. The disease will form the epidemiological center. From February to March in the following year, there will be more rain and prone to occur. In terms of soil quality and topography, low-lying water and clay are heavy and grow. The incidence of intensive, poor permeability or back-season cultivation is heavy. The stems and leaves of the lower part of the plant develop early and heavy. Early-maturing cultivars have a short growing period and can avoid disease.

Prevention and control methods must adopt a comprehensive prevention and control method to receive better results. (1) timely sowing, the South to prevent the incidence of pre-winter disease, reduce the pathogenic base number, late in the reproductive period to avoid the rust disease. (2) Use early maturing varieties to harvest before rust occurs. (3) Proper close planting, timely drainage and drainage, timely pruning, and reduction of field humidity. (4) Do not plant summer peas or early peas, reduce peas winter and spring bacteria source, winter sowing can also reduce the incidence of water washing. (5) In the initial stage of disease, spray 30% solid lime sulfur 150 times or 12.5% ​​speed poly WP 2500 times, 80% new Wansheng WP 500 to 600 times, 15% triadimefon 1000 wettable powder - 1500 times solution, 50% rust extract 800 times, 50% sulfur suspension 200 times, 25% demulsification oil 3000 times or 25% demulsification oil 4000 times plus 15% triadimefon Wet powder 2000 times, about 10 days 1 time, continuous control 2-3 times. The area where resistance to the above fungicides can be used can be changed to 10% Sulphate Dolomitrin 3000 times solution or 40% DuPont Fuxing Emulsion 9000 to 10,000 times.

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