Effects of Feed Vitamin Mineral Disorders on Poultry

1 Effect of vitamin deficiency or excess on poultry

1.1 Nutritional characteristics of vitamins

Vitamins are a class of low molecular organic compounds necessary for various physiological functions of poultry and special poultry. It plays a very important role in regulating and controlling the metabolism of poultry, improving the production performance of poultry and the utilization of feed.

At present, there are at least 15 kinds of vitamins added in feed, which can be divided into fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins, namely VA, VD, VK, VE, VB1, VB2, VB6, VB12, niacin, pantothenic acid, and choline. Folic acid, biotin, VC and so on. A variety of vitamins are part of the coenzyme or prosthetic group and participate in various metabolisms of the body.

A variety of green feeds are rich in vitamins. Under conditions of extensive feeding, birds can eat a large amount of green and green feed, and vitamins are generally not lacking. However, with the significant increase in the scale of poultry production, especially the industrialization and intensification of poultry breeding methods such as commercial laying hens, broilers, ducks, meat pigeons, cockroaches, quail, etc., these birds have escaped sunlight, soil and greenery. Feeds and other natural nutrients and environmental conditions can not meet the needs of poultry only relying on the nutrient sources in the feed. On the other hand, birds under intensive production conditions are particularly prone to vitamin deficiency. High-density and modern poultry and poultry production can generate many stresses and increase the demand for vitamins in poultry. Under normal conditions, poultry also have higher vitamin requirements than other animals. Therefore, industrially produced vitamins must be supplemented.

1.2 Effect of Vitamin Deficiency on Poultry

In the production of poultry, the lack or deficiency of any vitamin can lead to metabolic disorders in the poultry and cause various diseases. Insufficient or lack of VA, young birds will show growth stagnation, weight loss, feathery turmoil, severe lack of young birds will appear in the phenomenon of movement disorders; laying hens will appear decreased egg production and hatching rate, egg blood spots Increased incidence and severity of symptoms. The lack of VE can cause young avian brain mellitus, the exudative quality of young birds and the muscle necrosis of young birds and adults. At a glance, the lack of any of the vitamins such as choline, niacin, VB6, biotin, and folic acid in young birds and young birds can cause sacral shortening. Lack of choline can cause fatty liver syndrome in poultry. Lack of folic acid can also cause anemia, leukopenia, feather depigmentation, cervical palsy, high egg embryo mortality, and reduced egg production in hens.

In the production practice, due to a wide range of feed sources, it may cause a partial loss of vitamin content in the feed during processing, transportation, storage, feed composition, and environmental conditions. For example, during the processing of pelleted feeds, some vitamins are oxidatively decomposed by heat, destroying their activity; if there is whitefly in the feed, the absorption of VA and VD by the birds can be reduced; the feed containing mycotoxin can increase the fat-solubility. The amount of vitamins and other vitamins (such as biotin, folic acid) required.

Studies have shown that the addition of vitamins slightly higher than the standard of feeding can enable birds to achieve the best immune status. For the currently used corn-soybean meal diet, special attention should be paid to the addition of VA, VD3, VE, VK, riboflavin (VB2), niacin, pantothenic acid, VB12, and choline. For caged poultry, more VK and B vitamins than ground-level poultry are needed.

In the summer, the addition of B vitamins, VC and VE can relieve the heat stress of the birds. In addition, adding B vitamins and VC can also increase the growth rate of broiler chickens, increase egg production, egg weight, and eggshell quality. The addition of VE also has the effect of improving immunity and reducing mortality. However, it should be reminded that choline chloride and VC are not included in the “domestic multivitamins” sold in the market, and should be added if they are needed.

1.3 The adverse consequences of vitamin overdose

Excessive vitamin supplementation or long-term overfeeding can also have undesirable consequences. In particular, some fat-soluble vitamins cannot be added in excess. Practice has shown that excessive amounts of VA, VD, and VK3 have toxic effects on birds. For example, if the amount of VA is more than 50 times the normal amount, the chicken shows mental depression, unstable gait, decreased feed intake, and even complete antifeedant. Studies have reported that excess VA can cause narrowing of bone growth plates in chicks and young ducks. If the VD level in feed diets is as high as 4 million IU/kg feed or higher, it can cause renal tubular dystrophy and calcification and cause damage to the kidneys; medium VD can make limestone on eggshell surfaces The incidence of vellus knots increases, thus affecting the quality of poultry eggs. Therefore, when adding such vitamins, avoid excessive amounts.

2 Effect of insufficient or excessive minerals on birds

2.1 Nutritional characteristics of minerals

Minerals are an important component of body tissues and cells. It is involved in the regulation of the infiltration of body fluids, the activation of digestive enzymes, the maintenance of the acid-base balance of the blood, and the normal excitability of nerves and muscles. It also contributes to the absorption and utilization of other nutrients in the body. Therefore, it plays an important role in the growth, reproduction and nutrient metabolism of poultry.

Mineral elements in poultry feed can be divided into two broad categories. One is the major elements, which are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfur, and chlorine. Among them, calcium and phosphorus are the most important mineral elements that form bones, and are also easily lacking in the production of poultry. The other is trace elements. At present, most scholars recognize 14 essential trace elements such as iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese, iodine, selenium, fluorine, molybdenum, chromium, nickel, vanadium, tin, silicon and other 14 species. The trace elements that need to be supplemented in poultry diets are manganese, iron, copper, cobalt, iodine, selenium, etc. They are the living elements of the birds' body. For intensively reared poultry, these trace elements are even more than vitamins. Dependent.

2.2 The adverse consequences of insufficient or excessive minerals

Mineral elements cannot be converted or replaced by each other in the poultry body. If the minerals in the feed are insufficient or lacking, the normal growth, development and reproduction of the birds will be affected, and the utilization of feed will be reduced. For example, the lack of calcium, phosphorus, chicks showed poor development, osteoporosis, keel bending, prone to rickets, osteoporosis in adult birds will occur, calcium production of egg production will produce thin shell eggs or soft shell eggs. Zinc-deficient young birds exhibited poor appetite, growth retardation, poor feather growth, short cheekbones, and swollen joints. Egg-laying birds showed delayed sexual maturation, reduced egg production, reduced hatching rate, and more dead embryos. The lack of selenium in young birds showed impaired growth and development, fat indigestion, and white muscle disease, exudative diathesis, pericardial effusion, and pancreatic atrophy and fibrosis. The lack or deficiency of manganese in feed diets will reduce adult bird weight, egg production rate and hatching rate; it will also lead to poorly developed bones, short bones, abnormal motion, and impeded growth.

However, excessive addition of mineral elements can also have undesirable consequences. Feeding 8-20 weeks old hens with high calcium diets can cause kidney disease and visceral gout. Poisoning is more likely to occur if trace elements are not properly added. Excessive selenium can impede the growth of poultry, postpone sexual maturation, and have fluffy feathers. According to data, the selenium content in feed diets for layer-laying chickens exceeds 5 mg/kg, resulting in a lower hatching rate and abnormal embryos. High levels of zinc in the diets of laying hens can cause hens to lose moult and produce a sharp drop in egg production. Excessive intake of copper can also cause muscle abnormalities in the muscles of the bird. If dietary supplementation of 2000 mg/kg of dietary copper is added to the diet, it will lead to muscle erosion and subcorneal hemorrhage. Therefore, the mineral elements in the poultry feed diet must be reasonably added in accordance with the nutritional standards to prevent deficiencies or excesses.

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